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 Spanish Order of Battle, Steven Thomas

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MessageSujet: Spanish Order of Battle, Steven Thomas   Mar 27 Oct - 6:16

pour les hispanophiles, 1 article très intéressant :

Spanish Order of Battle during the Peninsular War
By Steven Thomas on 17 Oct 2008 | Last Updated 6 Aug 2013
The Spanish order of battle changed considerably during the Peninsular War. This was primarily because of the massive losses they incurred and that that recruitment was often in the hands of local authorities. These two factors meant that many new formations were created to fill the gaps torn by the French.

Overall Organisation in 1808

Royal Guard

Halberdier Company (Real Guardia de Alabarderos)
Spanish Guards (Guardias de Infanteria Espanola)
Walloon Guards (Guardias Walonas)
Life Guards (Reales Guardias de Corps)
Royal Carabineers (Real Brigada de Carabineros de Linea)
Cazadores (Cazadores Espanolas de la Guardia)
Infantry

35 Regiments of Line
12 Regiments of Light
4 Foreign Regiments (Irish, Napoles)
6 Swiss Regiments
~43 Regiments of Provincial Militia
4 Regiments of Provincial Grenadiers
Cavalry

12 Heavy Regiments
8 Dragoon Regiments
2 Hussar Regiments
2 Cazadores Regiments (Chasseurs a Cheval)
Artillery

4 Artillery Regiments
1 Battalion of Sappers and Miners
The regulars were supplemented during the war by a vast number of New Infantry Units and a much small number of New Cavalry Units.

Royal Guard

Sapherson (1991) believed that the Spanish Guard and Walloon Guard were the only combat troops in the Royal Guard. Sapherson’s claim not with-standing, Chartrand (1998) says most of the guard joined the revolt.

The Spanish Guard and Walloon Guard each had approximately 3,000 men in 3 battalions of 4 companies (Sapherson, 1991). Thus the battalions and companies were larger than in the line regiments. The first two companies of the first battalion of each regiment were grenadier companies. Both the Walloon and Spanish Guards added a 4th battalion in 1810 and a 5th in 1814 (Chartrand, 1999b).

Part of the Walloon Guards regiment was in Madrid when the city was occupied by the French; these men were forced to take service with the French (Chartrand, 1999b). The battalions in Barcelona and Aragon formed the basis for a revived regiment. There were four battalions serving in different parts of the country. By 1812 the regiment was down to two battalions.

Partridge and Oliver (1998, citing Solis) suggest the Guard Carabiniers, a heavy cavalry unit, may have fought at Cabezón (12 Jun 1808) and Medina de Rioseco (14 Jul 1808) . If they were the cavalry at these battles they fought badly. It is actually more likely that the cavalry at Medina de Rioseco were the Reina Line Cavalry and the Reina Dragoons. From 1802 the Carabiniers had six squadrons of 276 men divided into four companies (Chartrand, 1998). Two of the squadrons guarded the Godoy the ‘Prince of Peace’ so were called the Guardia del Almirante (Admiral’s Guard); these were a Hussar squadron and a Mounted Chasseurs squadron. The regiment was reorganised in 1814 to have a squadron of grenadiers and a squadron of cuirassiers.

Chartrand (1998) says that in 1803, and by implication in 1808, the Life Guards had four cavalry companies (Spanish, Italian, American) of 180 men. On 2 May 1808 the Life Guard left the Escorial and joined the patriotic forces (Chartrand (1998).

In 1814, when King Ferdinand returned, the Royal Guard was reformed with much the same organisation as in 1808 (Chartrand, 1999b).

Infantry

Line Infantry Regiments

From 26 Aug 1802 each line regiment nominally had 2,186 men, in 3 battalions of 4 companies (Chartrand, 1998; Partridge & Oliver, 1998; Sapherson, 1991). The first two companies of the first battalion of each regiment were grenadier companies, but the remaining 10 companies were fusiliers. The third battalion often served away from the other two battalions so may have been intended as a depot unit. In 1808 many regiments were considerably under strength and 20 regiments had less than half their paper strength. 400-500 was a typical battalion strength, compared to the paper strength of 700+.

The July 1810 regulations reconfirmed regiments of three battalions although few could muster that many men (Chartrand, 1999b).

8 Mar 1812 saw a new organisation for both line and light infantry (Chartrand, 1999b). The default infantry regiment had a single battalion and only over staffed units were to have two battalions. Each battalion had eight companies: six fusilier, one grenadier and one cazadore.

# Line Regiment Remarks
1 Rey 2nd and 3rd Battalions fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco.
2 Reina
3 Principe Two battalions fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco.
4 Saboya
5 Corona
6 Africa Distinguished itself in the Roussilon campaign in 1795 (Chartrand, 1998).
7 Zamora
8 Soria
9 Cordoba Haythornthwaite (1995) mention two companies of the Cordova Regiment were with Whittingham’s Spanish Division when it joined the Eastern Army in 1812, although this might be the provincial militia unit.
10 Guadalajara Haythornthwaite (1995) mention the Grenadier companies were with Whittingham’s Spanish Division when it joined the Eastern Army in 1812.
11 Sevilla
12 Granada
13 Valencia
14 Zaragoza 1st and 2nd Battalions fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco.
15 España
16 Toledo Two battalions fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco.
17 Mallorca One battalion fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco. Haythornthwaite (1995) mention that the 2nd Majorca Regt were with Whittingham’s Spanish Division when it joined the Eastern Army in 1812, whereas Gates (1986) only mentions the Mallorca Regt in Murray’s Tarragona Campaign, June 1813. I’m not sure if this is the regular line infantry unit, the provincial militia unit (which unlike most had two battalions, see Chartrand, 1998), or a volunteer unit. If the regular unit the “2nd” bit might refer to the battalion within the regiment rather than the regiment itself. It is unlikely to be the provincial militia unit because Haythornthwaite also mentions the Majorca Grenadiers and Majorca Cazadores being with Whittingham. Although not clear if these are literally the flank companies of 2nd Majorca or a separate, presumably volunteer, unit it does suggest the regular unit was present.
18 Burgos
19 Murcia Haythornthwaite (1995) mention the Murcia Grenadiers were with Whittingham’s Spanish Division when it joined the Eastern Army in 1812. This could be the Grenadier company of the regular regiment. It can’t be from the Provincial Militia unit as by 1812 the grenadiers were already part of unified Grenadier regiments.
20 Leon
21 Cantabria
22 Asturias
23 Fijo de Ceuta
24 Navarra
25 Aragon One battalion fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
26 America
27 Princesa
28 Estremadura
29 Malaga
30 Jaen
31 Órdenes Militares
32 Voluntarios de Castilla
33 Voluntarios de la Estado
34 Voluntarios de la Coruna
35 Borbon Formed, in Apr 1796, from three French émigré units: the Légion de Saint-Simon, Légion de la Reine, and Vallespir (Chartrand, 1998).
Foreign Infantry Regiments

The four foreign regiments were line infantry (Sapherson, 1991). In 1808, however, the Irish regiments were very under strength and Napoles only had enough men for a single battalion.

# Foreign Regiment Origin Remark
36 Irlanda Irish
37 Hibernia Irish 2nd and 3rd Battalions fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco; the 1st Battalion was in the Asturias at the time.
38 Ultonia Irish
39 Napoles Neapolitan
Swiss Infantry Regiments

For some reason the Swiss regiments were considered separate from the line and from the foreign regiments. Unlike the line infantry each Swiss regiment had two, albeit large, battalions, each comprising six companies of 200 men (Sapherson, 1991). The regiment numbers are from Sapherson. Tranie and Carmigniani (1982) say the first battalion comprised grenadiers and the second battalion fusiliers.

# Swiss Regiment Remark
1 Wimpfen
2 Reding Senior (‘Suizos Azulos’)
3 Reding Junior
4 Beschard
5 Traxler
6 Preux
Light Infantry Regiments

In 1808 Spanish light infantry regiments had 1200+ men in a single battalion of six companies (Partridge & Oliver, 1998; Sapherson, 1991). In 1808 these units were up to strength, and some were over-strength. It was normal to split these large battalions into two half-battalions of three companies, each half-battalion operating independently.

8 Mar 1812 saw a new organisation for both line and light infantry (Chartrand, 1999b). The default infantry regiment had a single battalion and only over staffed units were to have two battalions. Although Cartrand doesn’t say, it is likely, as with latter practice, that in the light infantry companies didn’t use the fusilier, grenadier and cazadore of the line battalions, but substituted cazadore for fusilier, carabineer for grenadier, and and tiradore for cazadore.

# Light Infantry Regiment Remarks
1 Aragon
2 Aragon
1 Cataluña
2 Cataluña Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
1 Barcelona
2 Barcelona
Taragonna
Gerona Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Vol. de Navarra Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Vol. de Valencia
Campo Mayor
Barbastro 1/2 Battalion fought at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Provincial Grenadiers Regiments

The provincial militia was mobilised in 1805 because of the threat of British landing parties (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). By 1808 the units were at or near full strength and the men were trained and equipped and basically as good as the line infantry (Sapherson, 1991). Before the war the grenadier companies had been permanently spit from their parent units and combined into four Provincial Grenadier units. According to Partridge and Oliver there were four Provincial Grenadier battalions of six companies. In contrast Sapherson says there were four regiments of Provincial Grenadiers each with two battalions of 600 men.

Provincial Regiment Remarks
Grenadiers of Old Castile
Grenadiers of Andalusia
Grenadiers of New Castile
Grenadiers of Galicia Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Provincial Militia Regiments

The provincial militia was mobilised in 1805 because of the threat of British landing parties (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). Sapherson (1991) says there were 43 regiments of ordinary militia, another in the Canary Islands, and four Provincial Grenadier regiments. Most of the ordinary regiments had a single battalion, but Mallorca had two battalions (Chartrand, 1998). Before the war the grenadier companies had been permanently spit from their parent units and combined into four Provincial Grenadier units. By 1808 all of the units were at or near full strength and the men were trained and equipped and basically as good as the line infantry. According to Partridge and Oliver the ordinary militia regiments had a single battalion of six fusilier companies. In contrast Sapherson says each militia battalion had four companies of about 150 men. Chartrand says at the start of the war each battalion had 550 men. The militia had no light infantry.

Provincial Regiment Remarks
Alcazar
Avila
Badajoz
Burgos
Bujalance
Betanzos
Chinchilla
Cuidad Real
Cuidad Rodrigo
Cordoba Haythornthwaite (1995) mention two companies of the Cordova Regiment were with Whittingham’s Spanish Division when it joined the Eastern Army in 1812, although this might be the regular regiment.
Cuence
Compostella
Ecija
Granada
Guadix
Jaen
Jerez
Leon
Logrono
Lorca
Lugo Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Laredo
Majorca Had two battalions (Chartrand, 1998).
Murcia
Malaga
Monterrey
Mondoñedo Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Orense
Oviedo
Pontevedra
Pasencia
Ronda
Sevilla
Siguenza
Soria
Salamanca
Santiago Battle of Medina de Rio Seco
Segovia
Toledo
Toro
Truxillo
Tuy
Valladolid
Canary Islands
Colonial Infantry Regiments

Sapherson (1991) mentions that three regiments were raised in the Spanish colonies but can only confirm that one served in the Peninsular – Buenos Aires. Chartrand (1998) describes the Texas Spanish Tercios, which although raised in Spain were destined for the colonies.

Colonial Regiment Remarks
Batallón Blandengues de Buenos Aires The British took the garrison of Montevideo prisoner in 1806 (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). After the war in South America finished the British sent the prisoners to La Coruña where this regiment was raised. It was equipped by the British and issued standard British uniforms. Their nickname was the “Russets” (Los Colorados) because of the brick-red British tunics they wore. The battalion joined Blake’s army at the Battle of Medina de Rio Seco (14 Jul 1808) where it was smashed.
Tercios Espanoles de Tejas The Texas Spanish Tercios were raised from 6 Aug 1804 to send to Texas (Chartrand, 1998). They never reached Texas. They were originally meant to have four light infantry tercios and four cavalry tercios, but only two, battalion sized infantry tercios were ever formed. Fought at Bailen (18-22 Jul 1808). On 12 Aug 1808 one tercio was converted to the Batallon de Cazadores de Bailen and the other to Batallon de Cazadores de Las Navas de Tolosa.
Marine Infantry

From 2 Dec 1806 the Infanteria de Marina (Marine Infantry) was reduced to 4 battalions of six companies (Chartrand, 1998).

New Infantry Units

The bulk of the Spanish regular army was destroyed in 1808 in battles with the French (Sapherson, 1991). Local juntas went about recruiting their own armies by adopting any surviving regulars and raising new volunteer units (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). Catalonia and the Basque country had the advantage of a tradition of local armed irregulars – the miqueletes and somatenes – but other communities also raised troops. Even the universities contributed staff and students to the cause. The lack of horses in Spain meant most of these new units were infantry. By 1809 there were over 100 new infantry regiments contributing at least 150 new battalions. Many of these units had a short life span as they dispersed for lack of supplies, suffered in battle and siege, and/or were amalgamated with other units. Sapherson has a list of units in existence by 1809 including the number of battalions, but does not list units raised subsequently. The list isn’t complete but it is a good starting point.

New Regiment Btn Raised Remarks
Alicante 3 1808-09
Almeria 2 1808-09
Antequara 2 1808-09
1st, 2nd,3rd Aragon 3 1808-09
Badajoz 3 1808-09
Bailen 1 1808-09
Barbastro 1 1808-09
Baza 2 1808-09
Cangas de Onis 1 1808-09
Cangas de Tineo 1 1808-09
Carmona 1 1808-09
Castropol 1 1808-09
Castellanos de Fernando VII 2 11 Jun 1808 Not in Sapherson’s (1991) list but there are other “Fernando VII” regiments and this may just be the more complete title of one of those.
Catalayud 1 1808-09
Cataluna 1 1808-09
Cazadores de Cuenca 1 1808-09
Cazadores de Valencia 3 1808-09
Cazadores Ferdinando VII 2 1808-09
Cervera 1 1808-09
Chelva 1 1808-09
Covadonga 2 1808 Sapherson (1991) says one battalion (probably following Bueno), but two battalions were present at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco (14 Jul 1808) where it formed the rearguard of the retreating Army of Castile (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). The regiment was raised in the Asturias and only grudgingly provided to the Army of Castile.
Daroca 1 1808-09
Del General 2 1808-09
Division de Arzu 1 1808-09
Don Carlos 1 1808-09
Doyle 1 1808-09
Escolares de Benavente 1 8 Jun 1808 Partridge and Oliver (1998) believe they fought at Medina de Rioseco (14 Jul 1808). I assume these chaps are the “Benevente” regiment in Sapherson’s (1991) list.
Ferdinando VII 1 1808-09
Ferdinando VII de Aragon 1 1808-09
Figueras 1 1808-09
Florida Blanca 1 1808-09
Gihon 1 1808-09
Grado 1 1808-09
Granada 1 1808-09
Huesca 1 1808-09
Igualada 1 1808-09
Igualada y Cervera 1 1808-09
Infiesta 1 1808-09
Jaca 1 1808-09
La Reunion 2 1808-09
La Serena 1 1808-09
Leales de Ferdinando VII 1 1808-09
Lena 1 1808-09
Lerida 1 1808-09
Liria 1 1808-09
Literario 1 1808-09 Listed in Sapherson (1991). Might be the same as the Vol. Literarios de Valladolid listed by Partridge and Oliver (1998) as part of the Army of Castile on 31 Oct 1808.
Llanes 1 1808-09
Loyal Distinguished Cadiz Volunteers Mentioned in Haythornthwaite (1995) for 1813.
Loxa 2 1808-09
Lt. Inf. de Zaragoza 2 1808-09
Luanca 1 1808-09
Luarca 1 1808-09
Malaga Cazadores 1 1808-09
Majorca Cazadores Haythornthwaite (1995) mention these guys were with Whittingham’s Spanish Division when it joined the Eastern Army in 1812. I assume they were distinct from the Majorca Provincial Militia unit because militia units didn’t have light companies.
Mauresa 1 1808-09
Merida 1 1808-09
Murcia 5 1808-09
Murcia Tiradores 2 1808-09
Navas de Tolosa 1 1808-09
Navia 1 1808-09
Orihuela 2 1808-09
Osuna 2 1808-09
Penas de San Pedro 1 1808-09
Pravia 1 1808-09
Reserva del General 1 1808-09
Riva de Sella 1 1808-09
Salas 1 1808-09
Santa Fe 2 1808-09
Segorbe 1 1808-09
Seiro 1 1808-09
Sevilla 5 1808-09
Suizos de Aragon 1 1808-09
Tarragona 2 1808-09
Tauste 1 1808-09
Tercio de Alba de Tormes 1 5 Jun 1808 A six company battalion of levies that probably fought at at Medina de Rioseco (14 Jul 1808) but disappeared soon after (Partridge & Oliver, 1998)
Tercios de Aragon 5 1808-09
Tercios de Castilla 3 1808-09
Tercios de Gerona 2 1808-09
Ternel 1 1808-09
Tiradores de Cadiz 1 1808-09
Tiradores de Castilla 1 3 Jun 1808
Tiradores d’Espana 1 1808-09
Tiradores de Ledesma 1 1 Jun 1808 Appears in Partridge and Oliver (1998) as “Tiradores de Ledesma” but in Sapherson (1991) as “Ledesma”.
Torero 1 1808-09
Tortosa 1 1808-09
Truxillo 1 1808-09
Turia 3 1808-09
Valencia 3 1808-09
Valencia de Alcantara 1 1808-09
Valles 1 1808-09
Velez Malaga 3 1808-09
Vich 1 1808-09
Villaviciosa 1 1808-09
Vittoria 1 1808-09
Vol. de Borbon 1 1808-09
1st, 2nd, 3rd Vol. de Ciudad Rodrigo 1 each 12 Jun 1808 Appears in Partridge and Oliver (1998) but not in Sapherson (1991).
1st, 2nd, 3rd Vol. de Leon 2 each 1808 Sapherson (1991) has this unit listed as “Leon” with three battalions but the story is more complicated. There were three regiments each with a paper strength of 2,500 in 3 battalions (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). Cuesta, at Battle of Medina de Rio Seco (14 Jul 1808), had 6,000 men comprising the three battalions of survivors from Cabezón (12 Jun 1808) plus another three battalions of recruits from Leon, ,making 2 battalions per regiment .
Vol. de Madrid 4 1808-09
Vol. Literarios de Valladolid 1 13 Jun 1808 The cadre of this unit fought heroically at Cabezón (12 Jun 1808), and was then recruited up to a full battalion before fighting at Medina de Rioseco (14 Jul 1808) (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). It was apparently disbanded after this, although was still in Army of Castile on 31 Oct 1808. Probably the same as “Literario” listed in Sapherson (1991).
Xativa y Cartagena 1 1808-09
Zafra 1 1808-09
Zamora 1 1808-09
Zaragoza 3 1808-09
I presume any units with “Light Infantry”, “Tiradores”, “Cazadores” in the title were light infantry. Possibly others were as well.

Cavalry

In 1808 Spain had a good number of cavalry units but lacked horses; more than half of each regiment was dismounted (Partridge & Oliver, 1998).

12 Heavy Regiments
8 Dragoon Regiments
2 Hussar Regiments
2 Cazadores Regiments (Chasseurs a Cheval)
From 30 Jan 1803 the official organisation of all regiments was five squadrons of two companies of 57 mounted men and 13 dismounted (Chartrand, 1998). The 1808 regulations, which endured until 1 Dec 1814, gave each regiment four squadrons of two companies (Chartrand, 1999b).

On 1 Dec 1814 the Spanish cavalry were rationalised into the following(Chartrand, 1999b):

16 Heavy Regiments (Rey, Reina and presumably the Coraceros Esponoles were all cuirassiers)
8 Dragoon Regiments
3 Hussar Regiments
3 Mounted Cazadores Regiments
Other units continued to exist but were changed or disbanded (Chartrand, 1999b).

The regiments were organised into five squadrons of two companies each with four officers and 58 troopers (Chartrand, 1999b).

New Cavalry Units

As with the infantry new cavalry units sprouted everywhere.

New Regiment Raised Remarks
Lancers of Andalucia (Garrochistas) May-Jun 1808 Raised from Andalusian cattlemen (Chartrand, 1998). Fought at Bailen (18-22 Jul 1808).
Artillery

4 Artillery Regiments
1 Battalion of Sappers and Miners
La Romana’s Expeditionary Corps to Denmark

Before the insurrection Napoleon ordered the cream of the Spanish army to Denmark (Sapherson, 1991). Before heading for Denmark the Marques de la Romana’s Corps was brought up to full strength by the transfer of large numbers of men and horses from units remaining in Spain (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). The infantry regiments took all three battalions, leaving no depot in Spain. In all 15,000 men left for the north. The Corps comprised:

This force comprised (Haythornthwaite, 1995):

Line Cavalry:

Rey
Infante
Algarbe
Dragoons:

Almansa
Villaviciosa Dragoons
Line Infantry (each with three battalions)

Asturias
Princesa
Guadalahara
Zamora
Light Infantry

1st Barcelona
2nd Catalonian Light Infantry
The British navy evacuated most of La Romana’s Corps from Denmark and returned it to northern Spain (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). Once back in their homeland the troops became the nucleus of the army of Galicia.

Army of Galicia

On 2 May 1808 the following units were stationed in Galicia (Partridge & Oliver, 1998; Sapherson, 1991); the number of battalions is given and specific battalions given if known:

Line Infantry: Aragon (3 btns), León (3 btns), Navarra (3 btns), Principe (3 btns), Rey (3rd btn), Sevilla (3 btns), Toledo (2 btns), Vol. de La Corona (2 btns, inc 3rd btn), Napoles (3 btn but only 288 men), Hibernia (2 btns inc 3rd btn),
Light Infantry: 2nd Cataluna (1 btn), Vol. de Navarra (1/2 btn)
Provincial Militia: Grenadiers of Galicia (1st btn), Betanzos (1 btn), Compostella (1 btn), Leon (1 btn), Lugo (1 btn), Monterrey (1 btn), Mondonedo (1 btn), Orense (1 btn), Pontevedra (1 btn), Salamanca (1 btn), Santiago (1 btn), Segovia (1 btn), Tuy (1 btn), Valladolid (1 btn)
??
The British navy evacuated most of La Romana’s Corps from Denmark and returned it to northern Spain (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). Once back in their homeland the troops became the nucleus of the army of Galicia.

On 31 Oct 1808 Galicia had 31 regular battalions and 11 Militia (Partridge & Oliver, 1998). These units were from a variety of sources: stationed in the province before the insurrection, from La Romana’s Expeditionary Corps, from Spanish garrison of Oporto in Portugal, and newly raised.

References

Bunde, P. (2005). 1st Volunteers of Aragon. Wargames: Soldiers & Strategy, 9, 24-26. Revistas Professionales: Madrid, Spain.

Chartrand, R. (1998). Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (1) 1793-1808. Men-at-Arms 321. Osprey.

Chartrand, R. (1999a). Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (2) 1808-1812. Men-at-Arms 332. Osprey.

Chartrand, R. (1999b). Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (3) 1812-1815. Men-at-Arms 334. Osprey.

Funcken, L. and F. (1973). The Napoleonic Wars (Part II). London: Ward Lock.

Haythornthwaite, P. (1995). Uniforms of the Peninsular Wars 1807 – 1814. London: Arms and Armour Press.

Partridge, R. and Oliver, M. (1998). Battle Studies in the Peninsula May 1808-January 1809. London: Constable.

Sapherson, C. A. (1991). Peninsular Armies 1808 – 1814. Leeds, UK: Raider Books.

Tranie, J., and Carmigniani, J. C. (1982). Napoleon’s War in Spain: The French Peninsular Campaigns, 1807-1814. London: Arms and Armour Press.

http://balagan.info/spanish-order-of-battle-during-the-peninsular-war

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La guerre, un massacre de gens qui ne se connaissent pas, au profit de gens qui se connaissent mais ne se massacrent pas. PaulV
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